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Termites are known to take pollen and regularly visit flowers,177 are considered as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.178 One blossom in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is regularly pollinated by foraging employees, and it is perhaps the only Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.177
Many plants have developed effective defences against termites. But, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they have passed the seedling phase.179 Defence is normally accomplished by secreting antifeedant chemicals into the woody cell walls.180 This lowers the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose.
When retained near the infusion, they become disoriented and eventually die.181.
Termite populations can be substantially influenced by environmental changes including those due to human intervention. A Brazilian research investigated the termite assemblages of 3 sites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.182 A total of 26 species of termites were present in the three sites, and 196 encounters were listed in the transects.
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The wood-feeders were the most severely affected feeding team. .
A termite nest can be considered as being composed of 2 parts, the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the construction itself, which is constructed by the termites. Nests can be broadly divided into three main categories: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but constantly connected to the ground via shield tubes).184 Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the ground with ground contact and are made from ground and sand.
Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.186 Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead portions of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.184.
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To build their nests, termites mostly utilize faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material. Other building materials include partially digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and timber ), and dirt, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are observable, as many nests in tropical woods are situated underground.186 Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are good examples of subterranean nest builders, as they only reside inside tunnels.
Nests and mounds protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, mild, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.188Nests made from carton are especially weak, and so the inhabitants utilize counter-attack approaches against invading predators. .
Arboreal carton my latest blog post nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change results from bacterial illness in the intestine of the termites: they utilize their faeces as a carton building substance. Arboreal termites nests can account for up to 2% of above ground carbon storage in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps.
Some species build complex nests known as polycalic nests; this habitat is called polycalism. Polycalic species of termites form multiple nests, or calies, connected by subterranean chambers.107 The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to possess polycalic species.191 Polycalic nests seem to be frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been found in a few species of Nasutitermes.191.
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Nests are considered mounds should they protrude from the planet's surface. A mound provides termites the exact same protection for a nest but is stronger.189 Mounds found in areas with torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion as a result of their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can provide protection against the rain, and in fact can withstand large precipitation.
By way of example, Cubitermes colonies construct narrow tunnels utilized as strong points, since the diameter of the tunnels is small enough for troops to obstruct.192 A highly secure chamber, known as the"queens cell", houses the queen and king and is employed as a final line of defence. .
Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds. These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 feet), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.56 Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 ft ) high and 2.5 metres (8 ft ) wide.
The sculptured mounds occasionally have fancy and distinctive types, such as those of their compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which assembles tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented approximately northsouth, which gives them their common name.194195 This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase quickly during the morning while avoiding overheating from the midday sun.